As of Golden Sun: Dark Dawn, many plot details about Tuaparang are left unresolved, and, as such, the nation is only vaguely described at best. However, several facts are revealed. Firstly, the nation both knows about and wields great technological power, such as the flying ship that is seen in the game's prologue and ending sequences, and using items like Psy Grenades in battle. Their knowledge of ancient technology is shown as Blados and Chalis use Matthew's group (as well as Volechek) to activiate the Apollo Lens, giving them access to the greatest weapon from Weyard's ancient past. They are ruled by a monarch called the High Empyror (who is mentioned, but never seen). Alex's relation to the Tuaparang is unclear, as he works with them for much of the game, but Chalis suggests he has ulterior motives in the finale and might betray the High Empyror. In fact, that may have already happened, since firing the Apollo Lens at the Eclipse Tower may or may not have been the will of the High Empyror of Tuaparang. It is also unclear how the Tuaparang got their knowledge, as they did not always live aboard the flying ship, as a book in Sana states that they were once an actual nation, which was wiped from the face of Weyard, only for them to re-emerge on the ship, renaming themselves the "Zenith Tribe".
One last, but highly noteworthy fact, is that Tuaparang are mentioned by Alex to be descendants of the Umbra Clan, whom he describes as Dark Adepts. Alex goes on to imply that some citizens of Tuaparang are secretly capable of using Dark Psynergy, and that Blados, Chalis and their reinforcements arriving on the airship are among them. Alex also suggests that Blados and Chalis may have been attempting some kind of coup or other military act against their own nation; he notes that the Apollo lens was pointing on a trajectory towards either the area around Sol Sanctum or Tuarapang itself.
This also offers a clue about the whereabouts of Tuaparang. If Alex refers to the original dwelling of Tuaparang, following the trajectory from mid-Angara to Sol Sanctum would suggest that the nation is in the far West by Northwest of Weyard, likely in an area that was previously cut off from the main world due to the expansion of Gaia Falls prior to the Golden Sun event, considering the Sana book reference. If Alex refers to the current whereabouts of the Tuaparang mothership, his statement would be evidence in support of the fact that Tuaparang is over the remains of Sol Sanctum, which is also hinted at in the prologue of the game.
The nation's Japanese name Tsaparang is derived from the real-world capital of the ancient Guge kingdom in Tibet that has been theorized to be the inspiration for the legends of Shangri-La, a mythical paradise.